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GMAT Sentence Correction #288

My confusing point is “,”, the comma

I understand it is the acoustic energy that is prevented from dissipated.
But the comma here is quite akward. Can we directly use “,” to link two sentences with causal relationship?

Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
D.its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
E. preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by

This is a difficult question.

The following is taken from our grammar summary handout:
"8.9 Absolute Phrase:
Sometimes, we need to move from a description of a whole person, place, or thing to one aspect or part, the to avoid the problem of logical subject, we can use the Absolute Phrase:
A’s n1 (n1 of A) + present/past participle, A (subject) + v +… (main sentence)

For example (Q86):
His right hand and arm crippled by a sniper’s bullet during the First World War, Horace Pippin, a Black American painter, worked by holding the brush in his right hand and guiding its movements with his left.
“hand and arm” (n1) are exactly a part of the whole person, Horace Pippin (A). The word “his” cannot be replaced by another word, say “the”, as this word is critical in establishing the logical relationship between n1 and the subject of the sentence it modifies, Horace Pippin (A)."

This structure is true, if the absolute phrase is put at the end of the sentence:
A (subject) + v +… (main sentence), A’s n1 (n1 of A) + present/past participle

In this case, the right answer “C”:
Sound (A) can travel …, its (A’s) acoustic energy (n1) prevented from dissipating by (past participle)…
Therefore you should understand that it is NOT 2 sentences! (prevented是过去分词,past participle)

A is wrong because lack of “by” after the past participle “prevented”. We can eliminate D as well.
B “sound” is logic subject of the “prevented”, while it should be “energy” get prevented. (A, B, E has similar problem)

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